Work and not work

An event jogged my memory a couple of days ago and provided the inspiration for this blog article. A number of years ago whilst freelancing I rang a web agency to see if they hired freelancers and whether they had a project I could work on.

I told the person in the conversation about my education, my previous work, my company but I also mentioned that I study programming as a hobby also. Immedietly in a raised voice “we are not doing this as a hobby, we do this as a profession, this is not just some hobby!”. At the time I was shocked, what kind of response is this?

I came to the conclusion that this person obviously cannot conceive that programming can be studied as a profession “and” as a hobby i.e. studied in spare time outside of working hours. The reason the person cannot conceive of this is because this is something the person has never done. This person has never worked on a programming project in his spare time outside of work.

The idea that someone could dedicate extra time outside of professional work to programming something they enjoy is inconceivable to him because he does not enjoy it. Surely anybody who enjoys programming and the greatest programmers out there will know that the programmers who also study programming as a hobby are more likely to be more committed to programming than those who only do it for their profession.

This sort of response can be seen across the whole working spectrum, the more the person takes the work “seriously” the less he is interested in doing work. He takes work “seriously” because he does not really want to work, he gets no enjoyment from doing the work so he cannot conceive that anyone else can enjoy doing work.

In reality he does not work take work seriously at all … “we are not doing this as a hobby, we do this as a profession, this is not just some hobby!” has no real meaning. It says nothing as to the quality of the work he is producing, supposing my code as a hobby is of a greater quality than his code as a profession? His statement says nothing, it is just an empty statement stated with the tone of someone trying to be serious but cannot be taken seriously.

Another situation might be the boss who does not let his employees work from home. This can be well rationalized “we do not like our code on other peoples computers it is a security risk” etc. In reality the boss does not let his employees work from home because the boss cannot concieve of an employee who can actually do work when the boss is not watching. You have to be there so the boss can see that the work is being done.

Again this ties into the enjoyment aspect of it. You cannot possibly enjoy work that much that you would go home and work when he is not watching because he does not enjoy doing the work that much and it is not something he would do. It is the joy aspect that is being targetted.

There have been a couple of occasions in the past where I have been working on a programming task in an office and I have looked up to notice a collegue staring at me. One of the collegues was staring at me in joy with a smile on his face, one of the collegues was also staring at me in joy with a smile on his face and he made the statement “you thought you where being clever there didnt you”.

I never thought much of this at the time but the more I thought about it the more it made sense, in those collegues eyes I must have looked similar to this …

No I am not claiming to be some super genius, but what they saw was probably something similar to that in their own eyes. What they where actually seeing was the “aliveness” of myself actually enjoying working on a programming task.

This can also be seen when asked to struggle with a programming task. Say a new developer is being introduced to a new codebase …

Myself …

This is how I implemented file uploads.
This is how I implemented error handling.
I put these methods in this Model here and they do this and help with that.
I created this helper class to deal with this.

General developer in the industry …

Yea, just look through the code and struggle with it, mate.

A little bit of struggle is not wrong. Sometimes I already more-a-less knew the answer I was asking I just needed confirmation. Sometimes the struggle can create the “fire” to actually do the work.

I am not saying there should be no struggle I am just saying there should be a balance. In this industry I see far more of the “struggle” path than the opposite, even to the point of asking a question no longer gets an answer but the developer is expected to struggle for 2 hours to get an answer to a question that would have taken 30 seconds to answer. I mean how is this sort of struggle productive? In my opinion, it is counter productive.

The “struggle” path developer rationalization to this is always, “well if I had given you the answer I may as well of been doing the work for you”. Yes in some situations this could be valid but in a lot of the situations I have encountered this it was clearly not valid. It is just an excuse for the “struggle” path developers own lack of effort.

In my own opinion all questions should be answered no matter how simple the answer may be. It may not be simple for the developer who is just starting out. Answering the question helps relieve a blockage in the production.

The next arguement could be “how I am suppose to get my own work done if I am answering questions all day” this could be valid, but then it is a management problem, the manager should account for the fact that the more settled in developers will need to answer the new developers questions.

I personally think all “lead developers” job roles should consist of helping / answering developers questions and maintaining the consistency of the codebase / architecture of the code.

That is all the lead developer needs to be doing, the lead developer should act as a “leader” to the none lead developers and as a person who ensures the cohesion of the codebase as a whole releaving blockages in the production by helping the none lead developers.

The lead developer should not have a huge number (if any) tasks on his plate at all and his / her sole focus should be on the none lead developers, leading them. In reality what generally happens is the lead developer has just as much work as the none lead developers have to do.

What happens? No help is given to the none lead developers, tasks take longer by not getting answers to questions, none lead developers look incompetent, lead developers looks good because his work is getting done and generally everything just takes longer.

Developer asks a lead developer a question, answer it. Developer is stuck on writing a block of code, pair programmme with the developer for 30 minutes, relieve the blockage. Lead developer checks the code commits for the day and finds mistakes, point out the mistakes and ask the developer to correct them. Lead developer checks the code commits for the day and finds inconsistencies in the code which would not fit well with the rest of the code, architectural inconsistencies, point out the inconsistencies and ask the developer to amend them.

The lead developers role in my ideal basically consists of leading and empowering the none lead developers. In most companies the lead developer is merely the developer who has been at the company the longest, not really leading anyone at all. The lead developer does the same job as the none lead developers and to some extent is expected to do more than the none lead developers.

What is worse is that the lead developer is given “first dibs” on most projects, this means the lead developers code 90% of the codebase and then it is passed onto the none lead developers to amend and maintain.

Manager …

Ohh I will give Lead Developer X this project to do, like I did with the last one and the one before that because he knows what he is doing and he gets the work done within the deadlines. Of course he knows what he is doing, he started from a blank canvas. He makes the manager look good.

Once the project completed and passed on the lead developer is then working on his next project which he got “first dibs” on, so he is now “too busy” to answer the questions of the none lead developers even though he is the only person who can really answer the questions as he wrote most of the code in the whole business.

This kind of position is somewhat of a nice setup for a lead developer, even though the lead developer may be writing more code than the average none lead developer.

A solution? Each developer is given his / her own project or set of projects to build and maintain. If the project is absolutely a huge project that requires multiple developers, then the lead developer is the “leader” and the none lead developers are the “developers” doing most of the work.

Is University important?

There are lots and lots of developers in the industry who never went to University and some never went to College either. Well I went to both University and College (Sixth Form) and in my opinion it was definitly worth it.

To start with before University I never had any interest in programming and I would for the most part say it is only because of University that I became a programmer. At University I was given a series of lectures and practical lessons. The lectures and practical lessons form the equivalent of a part time week. In the other half of the week you are expected to be self learning the subject discussed in the lectures and practical lessons.

None of this is mandatory, you do not have to turn up to lectures or practical lessons but seen as though you are paying for the lectures and practical lessons it would be a waste of money not to. University treated me more like an adult than any other educational organisation I had been to prior to University. You are actually a customer of the University.

A certain opinion on University in terms of the programming world are that Universities do not prepare you for the “real world” of development. To some extent this is true, University certainly gives you the ideal programming world. A world in which your profession is respected and you are given ample time to conduct your research.

I once worked for a company where one of the developers stated on a task I was working on “its not rocket science is it”. For the most part the developer was quite right, it was not the hardest task in the world to be working on. However that is besides the point, what does it say when a developer makes such a comment? This developer degrades his own profession by making the claim that the work is simple and easy.

You would not hear such comments at University as far as I am aware because the lecturers respect their profession and they create that same feeling of respect in their own students. You are a computer scientist working to solve real world problems.

A lot of companies are formed by people who never went to University and a lot of companies have developers working at the company that never went to University. For anyone who preaches “University does not prepare students for the real world of development” this is probably the reason why.

The people at the above companies never went to University and never had that same sense of respect instilled in them for their profession. Let us not degrade our own profession by debasing ourselves and making comments like everything is simple and easy, even if it is. In other words the degraded “real world” of development is at odds with the Universities respectable “real world” of development or rather there are so many people joining this bandwagon that it has somewhat become the “real world” because of themselves.

When you go to a University you have the fundamentals of programming explained to you in the lectures. The correct terminology is used to explain everything and it is explained in a professional manner. The feeling this creates in you makes you want to be apart of the latest innovations, discoveries and technologies.

Looking back after a number of years in development I would say that University teaches the foundations of each subject on the course you have taken on. I would agree that there is a lot of self learning to do in your own time but that is to be expected of University is it not? Maybe the people who are saying “University does not prepare for the real world” have been dealing with people who never did any self learning in their free time whilst at University.

Looking back there was a lot of people who only seemed to go to the lectures and practical lessons when they could be bothered. Never seeming to learn anything outside of the lectures and practical lessons. It is quite possible that they still managed to scrape a pass on their degree and maybe that is the reason for the skewed perception.

I would argue that the people who did that are probably in the same category as those people who could not be bothered to go to University at all. They are probably the same people now complaining that “University does not prepare you for the real world”. Ultimately though everyone is a individual whether they went to University or not and it is all about the investment they have made in the programming studies.

I think University does introduce programming students to some concepts they may not have readily picked up outside of going to University. Take “recursion” for example. I have worked on codebases that had parts of code written in ways that could have really used recursion and should have used recursion.

It seemed to me that the programmer had struggled to write the piece of code because he was unfamiliar with the concept of recursion. Not that he could not do recursion but that he was not even aware of recursions existence. This would have been covered at University so at least the programmer would know recursion existed. Had the programmer known recursion existed it would have most likely been used.

University gives you the ideal development world view and I assume the very top companies in the programming world share similarities with this world view. I can only assume this is the case because it all depends on the people working for the said companies.

So was University important? From the learning programming standpoint, perhapes not so much. However from instilling respect in your chosen profession, very much so.

Tips for clients when choosing a web development company

A while back I wrote a post about tips for freelancers …

My goal at the time was to later write an article on tips for clients choosing a web development company. I thought at the time this would be a straightforward article to write but the more I thought about it the less straightforward it become.

Some typical indicators to decide whether a company is worth choosing could be as follows, How many employees does the company have? Are the companies premises any good? How long the company has been in business? Does the company have a decent looking website?

The majority of the above indicators are really indicators as to how well the business is doing. A lot of people will except that if the final product looks and feels right and it works then they are happy with the final product. With a large number of people accepting this as the basic premise most businesses can survive for a long time on this premise.

So what is it I am getting at here? In short, it is the underlying code powering the web development project. It is this area that as the client you will have no ability to judge without programming experience.

Neither did any of the previous clients of the long standing businesses, so the business may be big, the business may have been around for a long while but this does not mean that either you or the previous clients ever got a good product in terms of the code powering the web development project.

How the product looks and to some extent whether the product works or not is merely a coat of paint over the real engine powering the web development product.

A Ford car can look and work right, a Rolls Royce car can look and work right but both have huge differences in the price tag. How do you know whether you are getting a Ford or a Rolls Royce? The quality of the components? In a web development project whilst some of the components may stand out such as the design, some of the components do not stand out i.e. the code.

This article has been born from observing different web development projects with different qualities of code being sold at vastly different prices. The higher priced projects do not nessacarily equate to higher quality code although the project may be of a better quality in other areas.

As a client how can you ensure you are getting quality code? I have thought about this and I am not sure there really is an answer. You could get a programmer contact or external company to inspect the code but then how can you be sure that the external company is any good at programming code, especially since the same applies to the external company which applies to the primary company?

As a client without programming experience maybe it should be excepted that if the company can produce a product which “looks good” and “works right” then the company is acceptable. The quality of the code is hard to determine for the general client and getting the code verified by a third party simply means you have transfered the trust from the primary company to the external company.

Select2 library solution in Yii2 part 4 – retrieving the data

To continue on from the previous article I wrote about saving the Select2 data …

I will now talk about how to the retrieve the stored Select2 data so that the data can be displayed on the front-end Select2 field. Following on from the Task / Countries example, place the following “loadSelect2Items” method inside the Master model or Task model if you did not create a Master model …

The code above can be explained as follows …

  1. Line 3 – return the array of Select2 data using the “array_map” function
  2. Line 4 – store the related entity models name into a variable, in this case that would be the Country models name. This uses the Country relationship that was created in “Part 2” of this article series
  3. Line 5 – store the IDs of the related relationship entity model in the return data, in this case that would be the IDs of the Country model records
  4. Line 6 – find all the records for the model / model property in the “select2_data” table, in this case that would be the Task model and “countries” property

The next step is use the “loadSelect2Items” in the Task model to the load the Select2 data into the “countries” property, place the following inside the “afterFind” method of the Task model …

So that concludes the Select2 library solution for Yii2. I have covered the creation of the necessary database table and the read / write methods for reading / writing the data.

After the initial methods have been setup this solution will provide you with a way of easily putting a Select2 field on your forms that allows for many to many relationships between models with just a couple of line of code.

Select2 library solution in Yii2 part 3 – saving the data

To continue from the previous article …

Once the database table has been created the code can now be written to display the Select2 field on the form and save the Select2 data to the database table.

In this article I will demonstrate the Select2 functionality as though we are wanting to add “Tags” to a Task model. When I say “Tags” I mean the standard web term for Tags. Essentially these are words that you can tag to an entity for example a WordPress article that categorizes the WordPress article using the tags allowing a user to search by those words.

When I say Task model, this is a fictional model in a Yii2 application that will allow the user to create and update tasks. For the purposes of this article it is assumed you will create your own Task model along with the controller and views. Create a standard CRUD for tasks possibly giving each task a name and a description.

You will need to create a Tag database table to store the Tag data along with its associated model. Create a database table with “id” field for the primary key and a “name” field to store the Tag name. Create a standard Yii2 model for the Tag table, this model does not need any methods inside it, it is a blank Yii2 model that extends ActiveRecord.

After you have created your task CRUD functionality and the Tag database table with associated model the Select2 functionality can be integrated.

First the field is added to the form using the Kartik Select2 plugin. The plugin can be found here …

Add the field to the form using code similar to this. Include the plugin in the form …

Add the field to the form …

Create a “tags” property in the Task model, this will be used to store the tags field data on both saving and retrieving …

Now the field is added to the form and you have a property in which to store the array of data which the Select2 library needs in order to function. Next you need to use the “saveSelect2Items” items method as shown below to save the array data in the “tags” property to the database.

The “saveSelect2Items” method can be placed inside the Task model but it would be better in some kind of global area such as a Master model as is it likely that you will want to use the functionality in more than one model / form. I wrote an article on how to create Master models which can be read here …

The “saveSelect2Items” method is as follows …

The code above can be explained as follows …

  1. Line 3 – get the class name of the model object in this case that would be the Task model and convert it to lowercase characters
  2. Line 4 – get the class name of the store model object in this case that would be the Tag model and convert it to lowercase characters
  3. Line 5 – get the Select2 array data of the model object in this case that would be the “tags” property in the Task model
  4. Line 7 – if the model object Select2 property is not empty, in this case that would be the “tag” property
  5. Line 9 – get the current stored records in relation to the model and model properties we are using. In this case the Task model, Tag model and “tag” property
  6. Line 11 – loop through the currently stored records
  7. Line 13 – if the related model object ID is not in the model object property array data. In this case that is if the Tag ID is not in the “tag” property array data
  8. Line 15 – set the deleted flag to 1, which indicates deleted
  9. Line 16 – save the record
  10. Line 22 – loop through the array data in the model object property, in this case that is the Task model “tags” property
  11. Line 24 – check to see whether a record already exists in relation to the model and model properties we are using. In this case the Task model, Tag model and “tag” property
  12. Line 26 – if no existing record can be found
  13. Line 28 to 33 – create a new Select2 record and set the properties
  14. Line 35 and 36 – save the new Select2 record but if it does not save then return false
  15. Line 42 – the else part of the original if statement, if there is no array data in the “tags” property
  16. Line 44 – delete all the existing records for the model we are dealing with. In this case that is the Task model

As mentioned in the database article the “saveSelect2Items” method soft deletes the unwanted Select2 records with a little adaptation this could be altered to hard delete the records.

Now that the “saveSelect2Items” has been created you can call it in your Task model by placing the following code in the “beforeSave” method of the Task model …

The first parameter of the “saveSelect2Items” is the property used to store the Select2 array data, the second parameter is the original model that uses the Select2 field on the form in this case that is the Task model. The third parameter is the relation model in this case that is the Tag model.

The code up to this point puts a Select2 field on a form and saves the Select2 data when the form is saved. If you go back to the form the Select2 field will not be populated with the saved data yet as that is covered in the next article which talks about retrieving the Select2 data.

Select2 library solution in Yii2 part 2 – database

To continue from the previous article …

I will now talk about the database table needed to get my implementation of the Select2 library working. As mentioned earlier the original design for the database included a table for each set of Select2 relations. So if I wanted a Person to be able to select multiple Countries I would have a Select2 PersonCountries table, 1 table per relation.

The latest design for the database has just 1 table to store all of the Select2 relations used throughout the web software application. I find this easier as I can then use the Select2 like a module, whenever I want Select2 in my web software application I just drop in the code files along with the database table.

The database table I am using is as follows …

I will now run through what the columns in the database table are used for …

  1. id – unique integer for the record
  2. entityModel – the short name of the model class stored in lowercase characters, for example the “Person” model
  3. entityModelField – the name of the model property used on the form to select the related Select2 relations, for example “countries”
  4. entityModelID – the ID of the model, for example the ID of the “Person” model
  5. relationEntityModel – the short name of the related model class in lowercase characters, for example the “Country” model
  6. relationEntityModelID – the ID of the related model, for example the ID of the “Country” model
  7. deleted – a flag to determine if this record is deleted
  8. createdBy – the ID of the user this record was created by
  9. createdDate – the date this record was created
  10. updatedBy – the ID of the user who last updated this record
  11. updatedDate – the date this record was last updated

Please note that “id” is just a standard primary key and is not unique to this article also deleted, createdBy, createdDate, updatedBy and updatedDate are not unique to this article. These are just standard columns that I populate all of my tables with and are not really necessary for the purposes of this article.

The deleted column may be necessary if you are running the code exactly as explained in this article but the record could have just as easily have been hard deleted and hence the deleted column is just personal preference.

To know more about the standard columns I use and to auto populate these columns read the following article …

The above database table is the table I use to power the Select2 library relations in my web software applications. An example use case for this can be described as follows …

You have a update Person form (entityModel) with a countries field (entityModelField) that allows the user to select various Countries that are related to the person (the ID of the Person is the entityModelID). You can select various Countries and save them to the Person. For each country saved a select2_library record will be created, the ID of the Country is the relationEntityModelID and the Country model itself is the relationEntityModel.

At this point a Select2Library model will need to be created for the “select2_library” table. In the example used in this article a relationship will need to be created between the Select2Library model and the Country model. This will need to be created using the “relationEntityModelID” like this …

All of the above will become clearer when actually running the code and seeing the results. The code to get this to run will be described in the follow up articles.

Select2 library solution in Yii2 part 1 – introduction

For those of you who do not know the Select2 library is a Javascript / JQuery replacement for select boxes. Although there are a few options to choose from in terms of using the Select2 field the configuration I will be looking at will be the multi select configuration.

The multi select configuration is useful for allowing the user to select things that require multiple choices, a typical example of this could be Tags but at a deeper level the multi select configuration is useful for allowing the user to create many to many relationships between models on forms.

An example Select2 field is shown below, allowing the selection of countries on a form …

Select2 Library

The above Select2 field could be on a add / edit person form allowing the many to many relation between People and Countries.

The solution I am providing in this article is all about saving and retrieving the Select2 data in a way that will streamline the process so a Select2 field can be attached to any of your forms within your web software application and it will just work out of the box.

The front-end part of the Select2 field is solved already as you can use the following Yii2 plugin for that …

The above plugin displays the Select2 field on your Yii2 web forms. The above plugin passes the Select2 field data in the POST as an array. It is what to do with that data in a consistent and streamlined way that this article I am writing covers.

There are many ways the data could be handled for example the data could be JSON encoded and stored in a column in the database table then JSON decoded and displayed on the form when retrieving. Another way would be to have relationship tables for each relationship between models and store the data that way.

The way I have chosen is more like the later except that I do not have relationship tables for each relationship, I simply have 1 central Select2 relationship table that handles all Select2 relationships across the whole web software application.

What is the purpose of all this?

Most programmers would just use the Krajee Select2 plugin (link above) and leave it at that in terms of abstraction. The programmer would manually write the save / retrieve code specific to each instance of the Select2 plugin most likely in the Controller. The way I am using the Select2 plugin is to have methods that handle all of this.

If I want to use the Select2 plugin field in any of my forms, with just a few method calls the Select2 plugin field will be up and running, saving / retrieving data for any field / model. The way I am doing this also integrates better with Yii2 and makes use of the Yii2 relations to fetch associated Select2 data, so this way integrates deeper with Yii2.

Allowing the user to select items on a form and have the software application save those items as a many to many relationship is not always an easy task. This method takes away some of the complexity of that, so that I can have user defined many to many relationships between models / database tables.

Yii 2 is here!

For those of you who do not know Yii is a programming framework built using PHP. For a number of years now I have been using Yii to built its software products.

Yii made programming software a whole lot more efficiently and easier as any framework is designed to do. I got in on the Yii framework in the early days before it became as popular as is it today.

So we have been waiting a number of months for the official Yii 2 release and it has finally been released, it was in an alpha stage until now and was not recommended to be used with building commercial products.

Yii 2 is not backwards compatible with Yii or rather Yii 1 as it can now be named. So any software products will have to be built from the ground up if any programmer had an old project written in Yii 2 but now wants to use Yii 2.

This is the first time a Yii version has been released that was not backwards compatible with its predecessor.

I think this is because the founders of Yii wanted to improve on Yii to such an extent that the fundamental core would have been altered in itself and could not be done by just building on top of what was already there like they did with previous versions.

This says something about the new Yii 2 in that it is fresh, tailored to its purpose and must be so improved that an entire rewrite was necessary. Rather than just layering on top of the old Yii it had a complete re-write which enabled its developers room to enhance and integrate some real fundamental improvements.

I will start using Yii 2 around January next year when I have finished all my current Yii software projects. I aim to write a new software product to test my skills in Yii 2. I will keep you updated on my thoughts about Yii 2 as I make the progression.

Font Awesome is awesome

Font Awesome is an iconic font library that provides a lot of professional icons you can use in a web based software application free of charge …

Icons are implemented as fonts so using any of the icons in your web software application is as simple as including the font awesome CSS stylesheet and adding a class to your HTML element.


I have recently been working on client work requiring the use of Bootstrap …

Bootstrap is a front-end framework for creating user interfaces, it is developed and maintained by Twitter. Bootstrap also has Yii extension component so it easily integrates with my number one framework back-end choice which is the Yii framework.

Before I learned about the Bootstrap framework I was coding the front-end of the frameworks using standard HTML5, CSS3 and JQuery. Now that I have learned about the Bootstrap framework, Bootstrap can do a lot of the work for me that originally I was having to code myself. Bootstrap provides a beautiful set of components such as buttons, menus, grids which essentially I was having to write from scratch before I knew about Bootstrap.

Bootstrap components are also consistent with what many people have come to expect with the web user interfaces that the world is seeing today, clean, streamlined and beautiful.